Safely removing SATA hard drive from a running system

I have a Debian-based system with a SATA controller running in AHCI mode. I sometimes need to plug and unplug a disk from an internal SATA bay. The bay is nothing fancy – you just slide a disk cradle into it and the SATA and power sockets make contact.

Wyzard on Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
has a good advice on how to do a proper hot unplug. The following is based on
that advice:

First you need to unmount the partitions. Then, deactivate any LVM groups with vgchange -an – I don’t use LVM, so I haven’t tried that. Finally, it is a very good idea to unregister device from the kernel and spin it down by

echo 1 > /sys/block/(device name)/device/delete

Then I can hear the disk spin down, wait for it to stop completely and just pull it out. When I put in back in, it registers properly. Please note, that I am using AHCI mode in the controller.

How to spin down USB hard drive for safe removal

Let’s assume you are running a Debian-based system and have a hard drive at /dev/sdc with a partition /dev/sdc1
mounted. To safely remove the hard drive, first you need to unmount all its
partitions. In this case you may do:

udisks --umount /dev/sdc1

and then spin the disk down with:

udisks --detach /dev/sdc

You should the notice (usually, hear) the disk spin down.

Please note, that we are referring here to the device sdc not its partition

Thanks, user76204.

Remove all .pyc files from a git repository

When working on Python project you may sometimes forget to .gitignore your
*.pyc files and end up having them tracked by the repo.

To fix this you need use git rm:

find . -name "*.pyc" -exec git rm -f {} \;

Then, add a line:


to the .gitignore file in the repository root to have them permanently

Credit goes to Yuji.